The Mechanical Dentist – Oral Well being Group


Superb Know-how

The medical administration of gangrene in the course of the American Civil Warfare was to amputate a limb above the an infection web site to forestall ongoing bacterial proliferation into the encompassing tissues. (Fig. 1)

Fig. 1

170 years ago, the medical model for treating gangrene was to amputate a limb above the infection.

170 years in the past, the medical mannequin for treating gangrene was to amputate a limb above the an infection.

Throughout a lecture in 2000, Dr Graham Mount, a pioneer within the scientific use of glass ionomer cement, described dentistry as “the one well being care career that also treats an infectious illness by amputation.”

In the previous couple of years, dental expertise has made vital advances to facilitate the prognosis and alternative of tooth construction by both partial or full amputation of tooth.

Sadly, all this superb expertise stays based mostly upon the rules of the medical administration of infectious ailments practiced over 150 years in the past. That is particularly unlucky when there are such a lot of extra conservative remedy choices presently out there.

The Medical Administration of An infection

Dental caries is a bacterial an infection of tooth construction brought on by altering circumstances inside the oral atmosphere. There are defence mechanisms within the dentin pulp complicated, which are able to slowing or reversing the speed of caries proliferation.

Arrested caries are an instance of how, in a beneficial oral atmosphere, tooth are capable of remineralize caries contaminated dentine. (Fig. 2)

Fig. 2

Arrested caries demonstrates a tooth’s ability to remineralize caries into dental scar tissue.

Arrested caries demonstrates a tooth’s capacity to remineralize caries into dental scar tissue.

Because the collagen matrix inside the dentin has been denatured by the carious course of, regular dentin is unable to kind, and remineralization happens by the deposition of mineral salts from the dentinal tubules and saliva. The darkish color of arrested caries is as a result of inclusion of sulphur ions into the remineralizing tissues.

Arrested caries might be in comparison with scar tissue, the place the dermis is unable to reform, so a protecting layer of scar tissue (arrested caries) is laid all the way down to cowl the wound space to forestall bacterial incursion into the tissues beneath.

The Medical administration of Caries

The present medical administration of a dermal an infection is to:

  • Clear the wound.
  • Place a medicament to reinforce the pure therapeutic course of.
  • Isolate the contaminated web site from a hostile atmosphere and allow the therapeutic course of to happen.

These identical rules might be utilized to the administration of dental caries.

Clear the wound

Carious dentin accommodates a excessive diploma of floor bioload consisting of bacterial plaque and different particles current inside the mouth. Contaminated floor dentin could also be so badly damaged down that it splits away from the floor of the caries.

Throughout the carious dentinal tubules, necrotic particles and micro organism are current that may intervene with the therapeutic course of.

Floor preparation consists of eradicating badly broken-down contaminated dentin and the bioload from the floor of the caries and into the contaminated dentinal tubules.

Damaged down contaminated dentin might be eliminated with a small excavator, gently levering it from the floor of the caries.

Bioload might be effectively eliminated, to facilitate penetration of medicaments from the floor of the caries and into the dentinal tubules, by the appliance of 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, washing with water and gently air drying. Polyacrylic acid is not going to take away bioload from the dentinal tubules. (Fig. 3)

Fig. 3

This demonstrates how effective etching is at removing necrotic tissue and bioload from non vital dentinal tubules enhancing both the penetration of medicaments and RMGIC as shown. Poly acrylic acid conditioning does not.

This demonstrates how efficient etching is at eradicating necrotic tissue and bioload from non important dentinal tubules enhancing each the penetration of medicaments and RMGIC as proven. Poly acrylic acid conditioning doesn’t.

Apply a medicament to reinforce therapeutic (remineralization).

Fluoride launch from glass ionomer cement has a restricted impact in arresting caries and has been used extensively for caries administration in distant communities (Atraumatic Restorative Remedy), nonetheless GIC can’t be relied upon for whole caries administration and requires extra pharmacological help to be really efficient.

Ozone fuel has been used as an efficient caries administration software, however its use is restricted as a result of lack of an environment friendly supply system.

Fluoride varnish software has been proven to have restricted scientific profit.

Silver fluoride compounds are extremely bactericidal and have lengthy been used to arrest caries; silver nitrate has been used because the early 1900s, and silver diamine fluoride was recognized from Japanese literature for arresting caries within the early Nineteen Seventies. Fig. 4 exhibits the bactericidal results of AgI deposits on a carious dentin floor.

Fig. 4

Shows the bactericidal effect of AgI deposited on the surface of carious dentin after SDF/KI treatment.

Exhibits the bactericidal impact of AgI deposited on the floor of carious dentin after SDF/KI remedy.

Aqueous silver fluoride (AgF) and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) each successfully arrest dental caries. Nonetheless, the facet impact of staining the arrested caries black has usually restricted their use for the administration of caries in deciduous tooth and root caries.

Staining by AgF and SDF can largely be prevented by the rapid software of potassium iodide (KI) that scavenges any remaining free silver ions to kind silver iodide, a creamy colored white precipitate. Fig. 5 exhibits the distinction in staining of a GIC restoration when one cavity was handled with SDF and the opposite with SDF/KI.

Fig. 5

Demonstrates the effectiveness of SDF/KI in preventing staining compared to SDF alone.

Demonstrates the effectiveness of SDF/KI in stopping staining in comparison with SDF alone.

The appliance of potassium iodide throughout being pregnant or sufferers with thyroid points must be achieved in session with an applicable medical practitioner.

Isolate the an infection from the atmosphere to enhance therapeutic (remineralization)

Composite resin is a well-liked materials for the alternative of misplaced tooth construction and is a superb restorative materials for cavities brought on by a misplaced restoration with out residual caries or tooth loss brought on by trauma.

Composite resin depends upon the bond of resin based mostly dental adhesives that adhere poorly to caries affected and contaminated dentin. To be able to restore a carious lesion with composite resin, all remaining caries have to be eliminated previous to bonding onto sound dentin, and this requires the elimination of plenty of remineralized tissue. In essence, composite resin is unsuitable as a restorative materials to revive carious tooth.

Glass ionomer cement has a weak chemical bond to sound and carious enamel and dentin. Because the interface between a tooth and glass ionomer cement is stress free, excessive bond strengths aren’t required. Moreover, prior software of SDF and AgF enhances the bond energy of GICs to enamel and dentin. (Fig. 6)

Fig. 6

 The application of SDF/KI to carious dentin increases the bond strength between caries and resin modified GIC.

The appliance of SDF/KI to carious dentin will increase the bond energy between caries and resin modified GIC.

Excessive energy GICs are indicated for single floor restorations the place there aren’t any unsupported cusps current. These embrace occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces utilizing tunnel or slot preparations and lesions on the gingival margins.

  • Figures 7 to 9 present a scientific restorative process utilizing the medical mannequin of caries administration:
  • Determine 7: A cavity is ready for a
    silver fluoride handled restoration, leaving vital caries in situ.
  • Determine 8: Exhibits the cavity following a 15 second etch and SDF/KI placement. Discover the white precipitate of AgI on the floor of the carious dentin.
  • Determine 9: Exhibits the finished restoration.

Fig. 7

 An occlusal cavity preparation with supported cusps for the restoration of caries prior to SDF/KI and a GIC overlay.

An occlusal cavity preparation with supported cusps for the restoration of caries previous to SDF/KI and a GIC overlay.

Fig. 8

Following a 15 second etch, the caries has been treated with SDF and KI. Notice the white precipitate of AgI on the caries surface.

Following a 15 second etch, the caries has been handled with SDF and KI. Discover the white precipitate of AgI on the caries floor.

Fig. 9

 A wear resistant GIC restoration provides a simple and predictable solution for the management of single surface caries.

A put on resistant GIC restoration supplies a easy and predictable resolution for the administration of single floor caries.

Multi floor restorations require the additional energy of a composite resin overlay over the GIC base, or a conservatively ready oblique restoration.

In abstract, single floor restorations to remineralize caries are positioned as follows:

  • Take away extreme bioload with a small excavator
  • Etch for 15 seconds, wash, and dry the preparation
  • Apply one or two drops of SDF or AgF onto the caries, avoiding gingival tissues.
  • Instantly apply KI till the white precipitate turns into clear
  • Wash away reactant and air dry
  • Place a GIC restoration.

The position of a a number of floor restoration follows the identical steps utilizing a Resin modified GIC (RMGIC) as a substitute of auto treatment GIC, as a base or liner, previous to putting a composite resin or oblique restoration overlay.

Determine 10 exhibits the remineralization capacity of SDF/KI on an asymptomatic carious lesion14 months after placement and Determine 11 exhibits how the usage of SDF/KI prevented SDF staining of the restoration over that point.

Fig. 10

. Large asymptomatic caries on multiple surface cavities shows the healing (remineralizing) ability of a SMART GIC, composite resin sandwich restoration.

Massive asymptomatic caries on a number of floor cavities exhibits the therapeutic (remineralizing) capacity of a SMART GIC, composite resin sandwich restoration.

Fig. 11

 A large multi surface SMART restoration treated with SDF/KI eliminates staining at the cavo margins.

A big multi floor SMART restoration handled with SDF/KI eliminates staining on the cavo margins.

Fig. 12

 Author’s book which presents evidence-based research for applying the current medical model to restorative dentistry with appropriate restorative procedures described in depth for each clinical situation

Creator’s ebook which presents evidence-based analysis for making use of the present medical mannequin to restorative dentistry with applicable restorative procedures described in depth for every scientific scenario.

QR code opens the author’s book web site on Amazon.

QR code opens the creator’s ebook web page on Amazon.


In some ways the dental career is at a crossroads.

The supply of high-tech remedy affords sufferers selections that will in any other case be unavailable to them. Sadly, such procedures are sometimes extremely invasive, time-based remedies that don’t present everlasting options to affected person wants and have value constraints that restrict their availability. Moreover, the passion amongst the dental career to undertake these applied sciences can result in over prognosis and prescription of their use.

Inside this mixture of the remedy choices out there to dentists, there are scientific conditions to deal with carious tooth, that will be higher managed through the use of a extra conservative medical based mostly mannequin of care.

Medical caries administration is predicated upon the remedy protocols of Atraumatic Restorative Remedy (ART) that has been efficiently used to deal with caries in each established and rising economies for numerous years. The enhancement of ART by the appliance of silver-based medicaments creates the fascinating acronym; Silver Modified ART or SMART.

SMART is a remedy mannequin of care that:

  • Permits prime quality and predictable dental restorations over a variety of platforms in established and rising economies
  • Offers a just about ache free and relaxed atmosphere for each sufferers and dentists that encourages the tremendous environment friendly supply of care.
  • Dramatically reduces the necessity for common anaesthetics for asymptomatic and apprehensive youngsters
  • Lays the bottom for future minimally invasive administration of dental caries

By leaving caries in situ, SMART permits the predictable, environment friendly and stress-free supply of restorative care with advantages to each sufferers and clinicians and might be readily accessible on a world scale.

In actuality, the coexistence of SMART and high-tech dentistry affords sufferers the perfect of care throughout a variety of remedy modalities and lays the foundations for the profitable evolution of the career.

Oral Well being welcomes this unique article.

In regards to the Creator

Geoff Knight is a common dentist from Melbourne, Australia. He’s an internationally acknowledged dental speaker with a give attention to preservation dentistry and has printed a ebook on this subject: SILVER FLUORIDE AND GLASS IONOMER CEMENT: A SMART Operative Information for Working with Tooth. The ebook presents evidence-based analysis for making use of the present medical mannequin to restorative dentistry with restorative procedures described in depth for every scientific scenario.

Read more from the 2022 Preventive Dentistry issue.


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